In order to maximize job site productivity, it is important to select equipment with the characteristics and size that are most suitable for the work conditions at a construction site. Generally, the type of equipment needed for a site excavation job include an excavator, bulldozer, loader, backhoe and dump truck.
When planning site excavation, several factors should be considered that could affect the selection and quantity of earth moving equipment:
- Quantity and type of vegetation to be cleared.
- Size of the job, which may require large equipment to dig larger volumes, or a greater number of smaller units.
- Time constraints – the job completion date is a big factor and can help determine the number of equipment units needed to complete the job on time.
- Equipment availability.
- Cost and time to transport equipment from the originating facility.
- Type of excavation – Different types of equipment will be needed for each type of excavation.
- Operator performance.
- Soil characteristics, which affects equipment output.
- Geometric characteristics of the elements being excavated will affect the size and type of equipment used.
- Space constraints may limit the size of the equipment used.
- Size and weight limits of the haul trucks, and the speed limitations to and from the dump site.
- Location of the on- or off-site dumping area will affect the number of haulers needed.
- Weather and temperature affects job site productivity and types of equipment used.